Earth was the cradle of Mankind and remained the political center of the Homeworlds even after Phaeton's forces captured it. The capital of Earth was Chicago where Earth Congress, the supreme legislative and executive institution of the Homeworlds, operated from.
When Phaeton struck, Earth's ground forces have put up a considerable amount of resistance but without the Exofleet's assistance, they couldn't hold it for long. After Earth surrendered, Phaeton put his best general, Shiva, in charge of it for, he knew, the Earth's Terran population was still the largest in the entire Solar System, which inevitably would lead to problems.
And it indeed has. Unlike Venusian Resistance Force, scattered and weakened by General Draconis' ruthless tactics, the Earth Resistance Cells, led by a former exotrooper and Chicago police officer Sean Napier and armed with combat E-frames they were able to recover, kept frustrating Neosapien security forces for years. When Phaeton relocated his capital to Chicago and renamed it to Phaeton City, he brought with him security specialist Livanus, who was appointed the Chief of Earth Security - a measure unprecedented in Phaeton's regime.
However, every once in a while Neosapiens had to deal with new human uprisings, often using brute military force to crush them. The largest one was Nick Tyree's uncoordinated attempt to liberate Australia. Despite lack of central coordination and weaponry, the human assault was only stopped when Neo Warriors were dispatched to the regions. If not for intervention of the Able Squad, the entire Australian Resistance Cell would have been eradicated at that time.
Overall, only a few regions of the planet Earth were shown in the series: mainly the territory of present-day USA, Canada, Brazil, Australia as well as parts of Antarctica. Vast territories of Eurasia and Africa remained out of picture, although Europe was mentioned occasionally. The reasons for this were never quite explained.
Towards the end of the war, Shiva was removed from his position of Governing General and Livia was appointed to it. Under her reign, the first Neo Lords were bred in Antarctica, the entire race of Neo Megas was eradicated because of treason and the construction of Phaeton's private underground fortress beneath Phaeton City began. The fortress was where Phaeton later kept his doomsday device, constructed as a form of revenge for the destruction of Mars.
When Admiral Winfield launched the reconquest of Earth, Phaeton, having wasted too many troops in the battle for the Moon, ordered all garrisons to fall back to Phaeton City and to defend it at all costs. As Exofleet was attacking from space and the fifth column of the Earth Resistance approached Chicago on stolen Neosapien Hovertanks, Phaeton's resolve to activate his doomsday device grew stronger, but he was stopped by the Able Squad. In the final confrontation of the war, Lt. Nara Burns shot Phaeton down, bringing the end to his regime and the Neosapien War.
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